In 2009, the Supreme Court (see Office of Fair Trading/Abbey National plc) ruled that the terms of bank contracts were not punishable and that the conditions applicable to NatWest Bank customers between 2001 and 2003 were not punishable.  The court found that the charges constituted a fee for a service and not a penalty for damages for breach of contract. In the state of Louisiana, which follows a civil system, liquidated damage is characterized as “agreed damage.”  Prior to January 1, 1985, Louisiana law used the term “punitive clause” under the former section 2117 of the Civil Code.  The damages provide a secondary obligation to carry out the principal obligation. The aggrieved party may claim either the agreed damage or the performance of the principal debt, but cannot demand both, except in the event of a delay.  The intended damages should not be altered (and therefore applied) by the Tribunal, “unless they are so manifestly inappropriate that they are contrary to public policy.”  Nominal damage: Token damage that is granted to confirm that the victim was injured. As a general rule, civil regimes impose less stringent restrictions on liquidated damage. Article 1226 of the French Civil Code provides, for example, the penal clause, a variant of liquidated damages, which combines compensatory and coercive elements. Judges can adjust excessive penalties, but such clauses are generally non-hazard in French law.  In Australia, the definition of liquidated injury applies to cases where, in the event of non-performance of a primary provision, an infringement of the first party or a benefit to the second part is caused by a security of secondary destination to primary destination (i.e. it must not be an offence).  NEC3 family contracts use the term “low service damage” (optional clause X.17) and generally contain a schedule for low service damage.  Damage caused by either party may be liquidated in the agreement, but only at an appropriate level, taking into account the expected or actual damage caused by the injury, the difficulties of proving the damage and the inconvenience or feasibility of another solution.
A term that establishes unreasonable liquidated damages is a non-punishable sanction. In order for a liquidation clause to be maintained, two conditions must be met. It is possible to use an average of the projected costs that may result from the treatment of an offence. The authority of the hypothesis that the average is the appropriate approach can be drawn from the case of English hop producers/Dering, 2 KB 174, CA (1928).  Winding-up damages, also known as “liquidated and found damages” , are damages that are fixed by the parties when the contract is formed as compensation for a specific violation (e.g. B, late performance).  On the one hand, at the time of the conclusion of the contract, the actual harm must be difficult to calculate and, on the other hand, the amount of damage found in the contract must be a reasonable estimate of the harm suffered. For example, in addition to the basic level of injury, there are other compensation measures: common law contracts require that some attempt be made to establish an equal or proportionate quota between the injury suffered and the actual harm. The parties must not lose sight of the main compensation and must keep in mind the timing of the execution and the difficulty of the calculations when drafting the contract.   The receipt of liquidated damages, which are closely linked to the purpose of profit, is a capital asset.