A forward rate agreement (FRA) is a derivative used on the money market. If the 9-month Euribor rate actually rises to 5.50% in 3 months, the company will receive an amount of 360.10 euros thanks to the FRA. She then only has to borrow (100,000 euros – 360.10 euros) – 99,640.86 euros. It will borrow this amount at 5.50% for 9 months, or 99,640.86 euros – 5.50% – 0.75 – 4,110.14 euros of interest. Over time, it will have to pay back 99,640.86 euros – 4,110.14 euros , 103,750 euros. In short, the FRA presents itself as an interest rate guarantee. On the other hand, it does not allow for favourable interest rate developments. Since it is an over-the-counter product, the listing has two prices as for other foreign exchange products. PepsiCo could enter into an interest rate swap for the duration of the leap. Under the terms of the agreement, PepsiCo would pay the counterparty a 3.2% interest rate over the life of the bond.
The company would then swap $75 million for the agreed upon exchange rate when the bond matures and avoid exposure to exchange-rate fluctuations. Today, this reference rate is usually a rate of xIbor, such as libor for example. Available mainly to medium and large businesses, a forward rate agreement applies in the following cases: The denominator 1 – T R × (D F – D) N J A-displaystyle 1-TR-d-dfrac `TR-dD` is necessary because it is interest rates, i.e. for the payment of interest at the end of the period. However, the payment of the FRA comes at the beginning of the reference period. A ACCORD FRA (or Forward Rate Agreement) is a way for an investor to secure a future interest rate. Along with vanilla swaps, it is one of the most common fixed income instruments in the financial centre. How does an FRA work? This means that if both instruments finally had the same interest rate, there would be a risk-free arbitrage procedure to purchase in large quantities a distant FRA, sell the corresponding future premium and adjust the interest rate risk position on a daily basis, thus taking advantage of market volatility. To neutralize this phenomenon, future ones must therefore have a higher rate than the FRA, increasingly with a distance of time.
At the end of the hedging period, the seller pays the buyer the interest rate differential between the market rate and the negotiated interest rate applied to the amount and duration of the underlying loan. If this difference is negative, i.e. market interest rates have fallen, the buyer of the FRA pays the difference to the seller.